Ford performance enginesFord Performance Crate Engines. Select your desired C.I.D. below to begin your build: Ford 302 High Performance Crate Engines. Shop Now. Ford 331 High Performance Crate Engine. Shop Now. Ford 347 High Performance Crate Engines. Shop Now.So, Ford made a new engine and put it in a new model. The Boss 302 engine was small compared to Cobra Jet or Boss 429, but it was a high revving, powerful motor. The displacement was 5.0-liters at 302 CID, and the factory rated it at 290 HP. However, the real output was closer to the 350 HP mark.Crate Engine Turnkey Ready. Includes Pulley Kits, Fuel Injection Swaps, Coyote Swaps. 427w Dart Engines. Cobra Kit Cars, Hot Rods & Muscle Car Engines.If you are looking to upgrade that old, tired Ford 289 for your 1965, 1966, or 1967 Mustang, Fairlane, Falcon or Cougar, this Ford 289 crate engine by Blue Monkey Performance would be an EXCELLENT choice. This 289 has enough cam to give it that muscle car sound but is still mild enough to be reliable for that everyday driver or restoration project. Innovative Power, Proven Performance! Boss Nine Latest Video Headlines Contact Us JON KAASE RACING ENGINES, INC. Phone: (770) 307-0241 Fax: (770) 307-0231 Email: [email protected] Performance Crate Engines Browse our performance Ford crate engines below. If you have a question or don't see the engine you are looking for, email us or call us at 1-800-275-7371 and we will be happy to answer your questions. We can build your engine to suit your needs, so please contact us if you would like a custom engine quote.FORD PERFORMANCE. GEN 3 5.0L COYOTE 460 HP MUSTANG CRATE ENGINE. The Ford Performance all-aluminum 2018-2021 5.0L Coyote crate engine is a modern 5.0L 32-valve DOHC V-8 that uses advanced features like Direct and Port Fuel Injection, Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (Ti-VCT), high-flow cylinder heads, and...When Ford first came out with the Cobra Jets with the pushrod engines [ed note. - the 352 and 428CI engines] back in 2010, we originally designed and built those engines for Ford Racing. They built the cars, and then the engines went into the guide for NHRA to be factored for Stock and Super Stock competition.Engines and Parts. At Barnett High Performance we are striving to meet your custom Ford and other engine needs. We provide excellence and integrity, honoring God in the process. Your project is designed using our background in racing, engine building and dynoing, machining, and R&D to meet the specific needs of your current or vintage application.Ford Performance Stroker Engines 331 Ford 415 HP Stroker Engine 331/415Hp EFI 86-95 Stroker 347 Ford 425 HP Stroker Engine 363 Ford 500 HP Stroker Engine. EFI Mustang Engines 86-95 Ford Boss 4 Bolt Block 500 HP. Ford Windsor Engines Ford 351 Windsor 400 HP Engine Ford 390 FE 450 HP Engine Ford 408 Windsor 475 HP Stroker Engine Nascar Inspired 408 Windsor 490Hp EFI Engine Ford 427 Windsor 538 HO Stroker Engine PERFORMANCE UPGRADES FOR THE FORD INLINE 6 ENGINE. When an owner decides to keep the Ford 6-cylinder engine, the next decision is whether to keep it stock or upgrade for better drivability and performance. If a part needs to be replaced, sometimes it might not cost any more to upgrade than it would to replace with new, stock parts.Ford Performance crate engines give you the ability to boost your Ford's horsepower and torque. Ford Performance offers several different crate engines from big blocks to the smaller Boss 302 engine. They can be installed in Mustangs, Broncos, or Ford classic trucks. Be sure to check the installation and fitment guidelines for compatibility.Ford's 300 cubic inch inline six cylinder engine is one of the world's most popular unkillable engines. With an excellent reputation for reliability and several decades of production, the 300 six has provided millions of truck and van owners with faithful service.Not all Ford Performance Parts may be installed on vehicles that are driven on public roads. Click here for more information about compliance with emissions standards. New Parts Cobra Jet BOSS 302 Circle Track Contingency Program. Crate Engines Packs Superchargers Wheels ProCal Parts Catalog.Engine options include LS1-LS2-LS3-LS7 in GM's Automotive Line and 5.3L-6.0L-L92-L9H for GM's Truck Line. The GM Performance Line offers the 480 & 525 Horse Power LS3s plus the LSx 376 and the LSx 454. Horse power options for the factory and performance LS engines range from 300 to 665. SPS offers custom builds using aluminum block and the more ... Restore and repair many generations of vintage Ford trucks with the best exterior parts, engine components and interior accessories from MAC's Auto Parts. Ford Truck Parts & Accessories | F150, F250 & More Excellent street performance from idle to 5,500 RPM. Runs on 91/93-octane pump gas. Power output from 300 to 800 HP. Drop-in performance, no guesswork! CHEVROLET FORD. EFI CRATE ENGINES. Top off your crate engine with Edelbrock Pro-Flo 4 EFI, the absolute best-performing fuel injection system in the industry. Pro-Flo 4 EFI is a high-performance ...This engine is sold as a Ford Performance Parts crate engine without a wiring harness, a flywheel, or headers. Predator. The "Predator" is a 5.2 L; 315.1 cu in (5,163 cc) variant of the "Coyote" engine utilizing a cross-plane crank and a supercharger, which is installed in the Mustang Shelby GT500 starting in 2020. Ford EFI Engine with STD 5 Speed Transmission PKGs 363 / 500 HP Holley Sniper EFI - 5 Speed Trans TKX PKG This 427w "Street Beast" is the Biggest and Baddest of our Windsor Class engines.Ford Performance parts include crate engines, rear-end gears, wheels, gauges, axle back exhaust kits, camshafts, cold air intake kits, cylinder heads, throttle bodies, lowering springs, handling packs, headers, and many others. Parts are available to fit model years from 1979 onward. In addition to individual parts, there are also kits ...Performance Engine Options. The 2022 Ford Bronco offers two different engines. The base engine is a 2.3-liter EcoBoost Turbo I-4, which comes standard on every trim except for the high-speed Bronco Wildtrak. SPECIALIZING IN LATE MODEL FORD, GM, AND CHRYSLER PERFORMANCE PARTS, SERVICE, AND TUNING! 313-561-5500 [email protected] Log In Register Account Products. Apparel and Gear. Cam Phaser / DOD / VVT Repair. Cold Air Intakes. Computer & Tuning. Cooling. Engines. Engine and Valve Train. Exhaust ...Check out an online version of the Ford Performance Catalog Crate Engines We've got Modular Engines, 302 Small Blocks, 351 Engines, and other Race Engines Wheels Get wheels for your Mustang, F-150, Focus, and Fiesta right here! Performance Packs Performance Packs are available for Mustang and Fiesta! Ford Tech LineEngines and Parts. At Barnett High Performance we are striving to meet your custom Ford and other engine needs. We provide excellence and integrity, honoring God in the process. Your project is designed using our background in racing, engine building and dynoing, machining, and R&D to meet the specific needs of your current or vintage application.History. Ford stopped V-8 pushrod production in the late 90s and transitioned all of their V-8 applications to the modular, overhead cam engines.Although, Ford has continued to build V-8 pushrod crate engines for its Ford Performance product line. Here we are several years later and Ford decides to throw a pushrod powerhouse in their 2020 Super Duty!ATK High Performance Engines HP99F - ATK High Performance 1968-74 Ford 302 Stock Drop-In Long Block Crate Engines Crate Engine, Ford 302 Stock Drop In, Long Block, Assembled, External Balance, Cast Iron Cylinder Heads, Each Part Number: HPE-HP99F ( 26 ) Core Charge $410.00 Free Shipping Not Available At This TimeThis engine is sold as a Ford Performance Parts crate engine without a wiring harness, a flywheel, or headers. Predator. The "Predator" is a 5.2 L; 315.1 cu in (5,163 cc) variant of the "Coyote" engine utilizing a cross-plane crank and a supercharger, which is installed in the Mustang Shelby GT500 starting in 2020. This engine is sold as a Ford Performance Parts crate engine without a wiring harness, a flywheel, or headers. Predator. The "Predator" is a 5.2 L; 315.1 cu in (5,163 cc) variant of the "Coyote" engine utilizing a cross-plane crank and a supercharger, which is installed in the Mustang Shelby GT500 starting in 2020. Ford Performance parts include crate engines, rear-end gears, wheels, gauges, axle back exhaust kits, camshafts, cold air intake kits, cylinder heads, throttle bodies, lowering springs, handling packs, headers, and many others. Parts are available to fit model years from 1979 onward. In addition to individual parts, there are also kits ...Ford Performance Crate Engines Browse our performance Ford crate engines below. If you have a question or don't see the engine you are looking for, email us or call us at 1-800-275-7371 and we will be happy to answer your questions. We can build your engine to suit your needs, so please contact us if you would like a custom engine quote.Engines and Parts. At Barnett High Performance we are striving to meet your custom Ford and other engine needs. We provide excellence and integrity, honoring God in the process. Your project is designed using our background in racing, engine building and dynoing, machining, and R&D to meet the specific needs of your current or vintage application.FORD PERFORMANCE. GEN 3 5.0L COYOTE 460 HP MUSTANG CRATE ENGINE. The Ford Performance all-aluminum 2018-2021 5.0L Coyote crate engine is a modern 5.0L 32-valve DOHC V-8 that uses advanced features like Direct and Port Fuel Injection, Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (Ti-VCT), high-flow cylinder heads, and...Large inventory of New and Used racing parts for all types of racing and street applications. Brands such as Clevite, Cometic, JE Pistons, Ford Racing, Kooks Custom Headers, Aeromotive, Excedy, ARP, Allstar Performance, Moroso, Canton, Autometer, FK Rod Ends, Fragola Performance, Roush Performance and many others with Fast Shipping and Great Service.High Performance Race Engines. Custom Ford stroker shortblocks, longblocks. Racing engines. Stroker Kits. Race car partsNot all Ford Performance Parts may be installed on vehicles that are driven on public roads. Click here for more information about compliance with emissions standards. New Parts Cobra Jet BOSS 302 Circle Track Contingency Program. Crate Engines Packs Superchargers Wheels ProCal Parts Catalog.363/525HP 8.200" Deck Small Block Ford Pump Gas Engine: $13800: 363/595HP 8.200" Deck HHR Small Block Ford Pump Gas Engine: $14750: Pump Gas Engines - SBF (351) 427/585HP 9.500" Deck Small Block Ford Pump Gas Engine: $14550: 427/630HP 9.500" Deck HHR Small Block Ford Pump Gas Engine: $14895: 427/675HP 9.500" Deck Drag Pak Small Block Ford Pump ... How to Build Max-Performance Ford FE Engines shows you how to select the ideal pistons, connecting rods, and crankshafts to achieve horsepower requirements for all applications. The chapter on blocks discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each particular block considered. The book also examines head, valvetrain, and cam options that are best ... This engine is sold as a Ford Performance Parts crate engine without a wiring harness, a flywheel, or headers. Predator. The "Predator" is a 5.2 L; 315.1 cu in (5,163 cc) variant of the "Coyote" engine utilizing a cross-plane crank and a supercharger, which is installed in the Mustang Shelby GT500 starting in 2020. Brand-new crate engines for sale can range anywhere from $3,000 to $10,000. Powerful high performance crate engines can run $20,000 and up for those looking to max out their vehicle's performance capabilities. The Chevrolet Performance 2014-2015 350ci / 530hp supercharged crate engine alone costs close to $40,000.Ford Cobra Engines. I would like to take this opportunity to introduce you to Custom Crate Engines. We are a full service automotive machine shop ensuring quality craftsmanship specializing in building performance crate engines. Each engine is custom built to individuals... An Engine Builder You Can Trust 24/7. Ford Truck EnginesGearhead Engines offers a wide variety of high-performance, remanufactured engines, including the Ford 7.3 diesel, 6.9 Ford, Ford 302, and others. As with all of our engines, we replace the components, and our technicians machine the engines to current OE specifications or better. Certainly, that's why remanufactured engines are often ...Ford's 300 cubic inch inline six cylinder engine is one of the world's most popular unkillable engines. With an excellent reputation for reliability and several decades of production, the 300 six has provided millions of truck and van owners with faithful service.Not all Ford Performance Parts may be installed on vehicles that are driven on public roads. Click here for more information about compliance with emissions standards. New Parts Cobra Jet BOSS 302 Circle Track Contingency Program. Crate Engines Packs Superchargers Wheels ProCal Parts Catalog.The Ford Performance Engine - Eddies Overview. The recipe for building a potent V8 ford performance engine for your car or truck is a procedure that has been crafted through years of experience at Eddies Performance. Most of us utilize the very engine that is in our car looking to get a rebuilt engine, but if your small block ford is a paltry ...APR 2, 2022 | Ford Performance Staff Three Ford's Post Top 10 Xfinity Runs at Richmond. Riley Herbst recovered from starting in the back to finish fifth and lead Ford in Saturday's race.Ford 383 Stroker (351W) Crate Engine with 380 horsepower and 400 ft-lbs of torque. Ford 408 Stroker (351W) Crate Engine with 450 horsepower and 415 ft-lbs of torque. Ford 390 Big Block Galaxy 500 Crate Engine with 350 horsepower and 400 ft-lbs of torque. Ford 460 Big Block Talladega Crate Engine with 400 horsepower and 470 ft-lbs of torque. Restore and repair many generations of vintage Ford trucks with the best exterior parts, engine components and interior accessories from MAC's Auto Parts. Ford Truck Parts & Accessories | F150, F250 & More Custom Engines Fueled by Jack Roush since 1976, ROUSH has been building some of the best Ford-based performance engines in the world. ROUSH is still proud to offer custom engine building, as well as complete crate engines and crate engine components! You can also visit the ROUSH Competition Engines direct website.Performance Engine Options. The 2022 Ford Bronco offers two different engines. The base engine is a 2.3-liter EcoBoost Turbo I-4, which comes standard on every trim except for the high-speed Bronco Wildtrak. This aluminum alloy engine features a twin-scroll turbocharger with an electrically actuated wastegate and direct fuel injection to ...Big Block Ford 632 Stroker Truck or Tractor Pulling Engine, Eliminator Ultra Block, Callies Magnum 4.750 Crankshaft, Callied Ultra I Beam Rods, Diamond Pistons, Crower Shaft Rockers, Trick Flow A460/360 Heads, Trick Flow 2x4 Intake, AED Max Pro Carburetors, MSD Ignition, Moroso Vacuum Pump, Dyno Tested. Add to Cart.Engine options include LS1-LS2-LS3-LS7 in GM's Automotive Line and 5.3L-6.0L-L92-L9H for GM's Truck Line. The GM Performance Line offers the 480 & 525 Horse Power LS3s plus the LSx 376 and the LSx 454. Horse power options for the factory and performance LS engines range from 300 to 665. SPS offers custom builds using aluminum block and the more ... SPECIALIZING IN LATE MODEL FORD, GM, AND CHRYSLER PERFORMANCE PARTS, SERVICE, AND TUNING! 313-561-5500 [email protected] Log In Register Account Products. Apparel and Gear. Cam Phaser / DOD / VVT Repair. Cold Air Intakes. Computer & Tuning. Cooling. Engines. Engine and Valve Train. Exhaust ...Ford Performance crate engines give you the ability to boost your Ford's horsepower and torque. Ford Performance offers several different crate engines from big blocks to the smaller Boss 302 engine. They can be installed in Mustangs, Broncos, or Ford classic trucks. Be sure to check the installation and fitment guidelines for compatibility.At Ford Motor Company, "Quality is Job 1" and that extends to every facet of the business, including crate engines from Ford Racing Performance Parts. Ford Racing crate engines are built with quality components, undergo rigorous testing both on a dyno and at the track, and are assembled to exacting tolerances. Apr 12, 2022 · FORD IN THE NASCAR CAMPING WORLD TRUCK SERIES AT BMS. · Ford has five series wins at BMS. · Joe Ruttman won the inaugural series race in 1995. · Brad Keselowski’s lone series win came at Bristol in 2014. As noted above, Ford has 101 all-time dirt wins by 30 different drivers in the NASCAR Cup Series from 1955-1969 and 2021-Present. Performance Engine Options. The 2022 Ford Bronco offers two different engines. The base engine is a 2.3-liter EcoBoost Turbo I-4, which comes standard on every trim except for the high-speed Bronco Wildtrak. Brand-new crate engines for sale can range anywhere from $3,000 to $10,000. Powerful high performance crate engines can run $20,000 and up for those looking to max out their vehicle's performance capabilities. The Chevrolet Performance 2014-2015 350ci / 530hp supercharged crate engine alone costs close to $40,000.our performance crate engines receive new high quality internal components such as performance valves, forged or hypereutectic pistons (when available), moly rings, brass expansion plugs, premium rod and main bearings, cam bearings, pushrods, valve springs, rocker studs, hydraulic lifters, rocker arms, timing chain set, and a specially chosen and …Craft Performance Engines (Originally Keith Craft Racing), located in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, designs and builds the best Ford Performance Engines for your Cobra, Mustang, Race Car, or any Street / Performance application.If you are looking to upgrade that old, tired Ford 289 for your 1965, 1966, or 1967 Mustang, Fairlane, Falcon or Cougar, this Ford 289 crate engine by Blue Monkey Performance would be an EXCELLENT choice. This 289 has enough cam to give it that muscle car sound but is still mild enough to be reliable for that everyday driver or restoration project. This 302 performance engine rated at 400 HP is dedicated to those Star Wars fans who want to feel the force! DRESS PACKAGES BASE PACKAGE $6100.00 Complete long block engine from intake to oil pan Get photos of your engine before it ships Customized: choose your block color, front or rear sump oil pan, and more 5 year/50,000 mile warranty2018-20 MUSTANG 5.0L COYOTE 460HP MUSTANG LONG BLOCK This long block assembly is the basis for the Ford Performance M-6007-M50C all-aluminum 2018-2020 5.0L Coyote crate engine. This engine is a modern 5.0L…. Read more. Showing all 27 results.High Performance Race Engines. Custom Ford stroker shortblocks, longblocks. Racing engines. Stroker Kits. Race car partsFord Performance Crate Engines When you purchase one of our Ford engines you are buying the finest turn-key drop in ready crate engine combinations in the world. Some of our popular engine combinations like our 289, 302, 351w and world renowned strokers like the 331, 347, 408w, and 427w are best used for street/strip hot rods. If you are looking to upgrade that old, tired Ford 289 for your 1965, 1966, or 1967 Mustang, Fairlane, Falcon or Cougar, this Ford 289 crate engine by Blue Monkey Performance would be an EXCELLENT choice. This 289 has enough cam to give it that muscle car sound but is still mild enough to be reliable for that everyday driver or restoration project. How to Build Max-Performance Ford FE Engines shows you how to select the ideal pistons, connecting rods, and crankshafts to achieve horsepower requirements for all applications. The chapter on blocks discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each particular block considered. The book also examines head, valvetrain, and cam options that are best ... Ford Performance Crate Engines. Select your desired C.I.D. below to begin your build: Ford 302 High Performance Crate Engines. Shop Now. Ford 331 High Performance Crate Engine. Shop Now. Ford 347 High Performance Crate Engines. Shop Now.Ford Performance Crate Engines When you purchase one of our Ford engines you are buying the finest turn-key drop in ready crate engine combinations in the world. Some of our popular engine combinations like our 289, 302, 351w and world renowned strokers like the 331, 347, 408w, and 427w are best used for street/strip hot rods. Apr 12, 2022 · FORD IN THE NASCAR CAMPING WORLD TRUCK SERIES AT BMS. · Ford has five series wins at BMS. · Joe Ruttman won the inaugural series race in 1995. · Brad Keselowski’s lone series win came at Bristol in 2014. As noted above, Ford has 101 all-time dirt wins by 30 different drivers in the NASCAR Cup Series from 1955-1969 and 2021-Present. The Ford Performance Engine - Eddies Overview. The recipe for building a potent V8 ford performance engine for your car or truck is a procedure that has been crafted through years of experience at Eddies Performance. Most of us utilize the very engine that is in our car looking to get a rebuilt engine, but if your small block ford is a paltry ...Box Engines. Engine Building from Mild to Wild and anywhere in between! Here at Box Performance, we design your engine with custom cams, rod lengths, pin heights, compression distances, strokes & bores. Customer's can choose from a selection of high quality parts and brand names. If you are looking for a rebuild or upgrade give us a call. Stock cylinder bore size 90.2mm (3.552") Produces 5.0L displacement when used with a 4.6L stock stroke crankshaft, stock length connecting rods and custom 94mm-diameter pistons. Same block that is used in the 5.0L "Cammer" crate engine. Suggested Retail:$3699.00. Not all Ford Performance Parts may be installed on vehicles that are driven on public roads. Click here for more information about compliance with emissions standards. New Parts Cobra Jet BOSS 302 Circle Track Contingency Program. Crate Engines Packs Superchargers Wheels ProCal Parts Catalog.Oil Starvation is one of the leading causes of engine failure on Ford 5.0 / 5.2 Coyote engines. Aftermarket Oil Pump gears are great but the restrictive factory pick-up tube should also be replaced on any high performance application.The 4.6L engine is one of Ford's greatest creations. From the start of the 1990s until the present day, this engine has put its mark on much of the Ford inventory. The Mustang, Crown Victoria, Explorer and Thunderbird are just a few of the models that this engine has made famous.Crate Engine Turnkey Ready. Includes Pulley Kits, Fuel Injection Swaps, Coyote Swaps. 427w Dart Engines. Cobra Kit Cars, Hot Rods & Muscle Car Engines.At Ford Motor Company, "Quality is Job 1" and that extends to every facet of the business, including crate engines from Ford Racing Performance Parts. Ford Racing crate engines are built with quality components, undergo rigorous testing both on a dyno and at the track, and are assembled to exacting tolerances. Ford Performance 7.3L Godzilla Crate Engine ¦ ReviewEngine Building Part 1: Blocks How to build HORSEPOWER - Ford 461ci Windsor V8 by Dandy Engines The 2022 Kia Carnival Is a High-Tech Luxury Minivan Building a 1100+ Horsepower Jon Kaase Big Block Ford - Engine Power S6, E5 9 Greatest Ford Engines Ever The 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Is the Fast ... Our Ford Small Block Crate Engines are an homage to 1969, a year of aggressive modernization at Ford. Ford's 302, 351 Windsor, and 351 Cleveland motors were created to meet the needs of intermediate and pony car lines. We took those designs and engineered our Ford Small Block engines as the perfect turn-key option for Mustangs and other ...High Performance Race Engines. Custom Ford stroker shortblocks, longblocks. Racing engines. Stroker Kits. Race car partsFord 351 Windsor 345 HP High Performance Balanced Crate Engine. $ 4,095.00. Need more power? This engine combination would be outstanding in your car, street rod, truck, or marine application. These engines are built with a hand picked seasoned block. This unleaded fuel-compatible engine comes completely assembled, with valve covers, timing ... Ford Performance Crate Engines When you purchase one of our Ford engines you are buying the finest turn-key drop in ready crate engine combinations in the world. Some of our popular engine combinations like our 289, 302, 351w and world renowned strokers like the 331, 347, 408w, and 427w are best used for street/strip hot rods.The Ford Performance 347ci is a stroker, meaning its longer 3.4-inch stroke makes it nearly the same displacement as a 351W, only it has the appearance and profile of the smaller 5-liter.You wanted Ford Racing performance and value--you got it! Make these crate engines the heart of your build and convert your project's energy into a high performance machine. Get in line for these 306 c.i.d. 340 hp crate engines from Ford Racing--the people with high performance passion.Crate Engine - Ford 351 Crate Motor, 393, 408, 418, 427, 454, Stroker, at GREAT Prices, Selection, Customer Service, and Low Shipping Rates All From COAST HIGH PERFORMANCEGEN 3 5.0L COYOTE 460HP MUSTANG CRATE ENGINE The Ford Performance all-aluminum 2018 5.0L Coyote crate engine is a modern 5.0L 32-valve DOHC V-8 that uses advanced features like Direct… Ford 2300 & 2000 Race Engineering is the leader in high performance & race engine parts for the 2300 Ford motor found in Pintos, Merkurs, Mustangs and Rangers. FOLLOWER UPDATE : Our new coated follower is now in stock and offers the following improvements: No wear pad to come loose, improved lubricity reduces power-robbing friction, quieter ...Performance Engine Options. The 2022 Ford Bronco offers two different engines. The base engine is a 2.3-liter EcoBoost Turbo I-4, which comes standard on every trim except for the high-speed Bronco Wildtrak. gta 5 mod menu pcworld of beer tallahasseetoyota camry horsepowerjobs in petawawaknoxville zoo lightsasheville weather 10 daytaller in englishmr. grinch lyricsall pets club - fd